I. Textural Corpora


                                                                                          - People’s Daily (《人民日报》), all articles, 1946-2017;

                                                                                          - China Central Television (CCTV) News (《新闻联播》), all transcripts, 2003-2017.









                     (Image of People's Daily Front Page on 2/17/1979,                            

                  The Day The Sino-Vietnamese Border War Broke out)                                                        (Monthly Count of People’s Daily Articles on the Sino-Philippines

                                                                                                                                                                                        South China Sea Dispute, 2010-2016)



II. Quantitative Data


- Chinese maritime incursions near the Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands (with Pengqiao Lu), September 2012 – July 2018.

The original data are downloaded from 海上保安庁(Japanese Coast Guard),


(Trends of Chinese Government Vessels and Other Vessels in the Waters

Surrounding the Senkaku Islands and Japan’s Countermeasures)

We collapsed it into weekly data and merged with data on the

timing of the fishing bans, Chinese domestic economic

stability, timing of diplomatic events in China, festivals, war

anniversaries, and timing of other significant domestic political events.



                                                                                                                                                                                                             (Marginal Effect of the Concurrence of Diplomatic Events 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   on Chinese Patrols Within Twelve Nautical Miles)                                     


III. Archives

                                                                                                           - Files on the South China Sea dispute from Academia Sinica and        

                                                                                                           presidential files on the dispute from Academic Historica, 1933-1971;

                                                                                                           - Files on the Sino-Vietnamese border conflict 1979-1991 from the

                                                                                                           Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Centre for China Studies at

                                                                                                           the Chinese University of Hong Kong, the library of the School of

                                                                                                           International Studies at Peking University, the Center for Cold War

                                                                                                           International History Studies at East China Normal University,

                                                                                                           municipal archives of Pingxiang, Guangxi Province and of Wenshan,

                                                                                                           Yunnan Province of China, the No. 3 National Archives of Vietnam in

                                                                                                           Hanoi, the National Library of Vietnam, and the No. 2 National

                                                                                                           Archives of Vietnam in Ho Chi Minh City.

IV. Interviews

- A total of 57 interviews to seven former government officials, forty journalists and editors (covering all major Chinese news outlets), and ten scholars on Chinese media policy during various Chinese diplomatic crises, May-July 2017 (IRB Reference No.: 2017-0197-00, Institutional Review Board for the Social and Behavioral Sciences, University of Virginia);

- Interviews to six Chinese fishermen in Tanmen, Hainan Province who frequent the Spratlys, July 2014.


V. Other

- Baidu Search Index (BSI) on keywords of “南海 (South China Sea)” and “钓鱼岛 (Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands), 2011-2018

BSI is an analytic tool that tracks the daily search activity on given keywords on China’s most dominant search engine, 2011-2018. The indices are not the actual number of daily searches but an indicator that reflects the relative level of search activity. The formulae are not transparent, but it takes in account China’s increasing population of internet users, so these data are comparable over time and between different keywords searched.





                                                  (Daily Search Volume of the Key Word “南海 (South China Sea)” on One Year Before the 2014 Sino-Vietnamese Oil Rig Crisis Broke Out)